Account rendered by a ship’s agent at a port to the shipowner for all sums paid out in respect of the ship’s call at the port such as pilotage, towage, any cash advance to the master, supply of provisions and stores and the agency fee. Receipts known as vouchers support the account.
Sum of money payable to the shipowner by the voyage charterer, or anyone who becomes a party to the terms of the charter, for failing to load and/or discharge cargo within the time allowed in the Charter-Party. It is payable for each day or part thereof until completion of loading or discharging, as the case may be. Unlike demurrage, the amount is not agreed in advance, but is normally set by the Court either at the same rate as demurrage if such a rate has been incorporated into the Charter-Party, or based on the daily running cost of the ship plus any profit which shipowner might reasonably have expected. These damages apply when the Charter-Party contains no provision for demurrage or when the agreed period of demurrage is exceeded.
Amount of money payable by a shipper or charterer to a shipowner or shipping line for failing to load the quantity of cargo stipulated in the contract of carriage. Deadfreight is normally payable at the full freight rate but may be reduced by the loading and/or discharging expenses if these were included in the freight.
Cargo of one metric ton which measures one cubic meter or less. Freight on deadweight cargo is generally payable on the weight, that is, per metric ton.
Cargo carried on, and secured to, the open deck of a ship. Cargoes traditionally carried on deck include dangerous goods, timber and goods, which are too large for the hatchway. Consideration needed when contemplating carrying cargo on deck are: the strength of the deck, the strength of the hatch covers if cargo is stowed on the top of them, the safety of the crew and their ability to go from one part of the ship to another, the need to ensure that cargo is not stacked so high as to impede navigation. Deck cargoes are carried at the risk of the charterer, shipper or Bill of Lading holder, as the case may be.
The conveying of goods by a carrier to the receiver or Bill of Lading bolder at the place of destination in the contract of carriage.
Document, signed by or on behalf of the shipowner and the charterer, certifying the time, date and place of delivery of the ship, that is, the placing of the ship at the disposal of the time charterer at the beginning of the period of the charter. The certificate also states the quantity of bunkers on board at the time of delivery and any notations by the charterer concerning the failure of the ship to comply in any respect with the terms of the Charter-Party.
Document issued by a liner company’s agent authorizing the party named in it to take delivery of specific cargo from a ship. It is normally issued in exchange for an original Bill of Lading.
Placing of a time chartered ship by the shipowner at the disposal of the charterer at the beginning of the period of the charter, at the time and place agreed. The place of delivery is often a location, such as a pilot station, where it is relatively easy to verify the time of arrival and hence the time when the charter commences. Normally, an on hire survey is carried out as soon as practicable in order to determine the condition of the ship and the quantity of bunkers on board at the time of delivery.
Amount of money paid to the shipowner by the charterer, shipper or receiver, as the case may be, for failing to complete loading and/or discharging within the time allowed in the Charter-Party. The rate of demurrage, normally an amount per day, is agreed in the Charter-Party. Some charters specify that, after a certain period of demurrage, either additional demurrage or damages for detention become payable. When demurrage becomes payable, it is said of a ship that she is on demurrage. Once a ship is on demurrage, no deductions are made for the excepted periods, such as weekends, in the calculation of the demurrage charges; hence it is said that “once on demurrage, always on demurrage.”
See bareboat charter.
Clause in a Bill of Lading stipulating that the contact of carriage is between the shipper or Bill of Lading holder and the shipowner. Bills of lading issued by charterers of a ship on behalf of the owner and master often contain this clause. It should be noted that this clause is inconsistent with the laws of certain countries and may therefore be invalid in those countries.
This mean that the seller makes the goods available to the buyer on the quay at the destination named in the sales contract. The seller has to bear the full cost and risk involved in bringing the goods there. There are two “ex quay” contracts in use, namely “ex quay” (duty paid) and “ex quay’ (duties on buyer’s account), in which the liability to clear the goods for import are to be met by the buyer instead of by the seller, parties are recommended always to use the full descriptions of these terms namely “ex quay’ (duty paid) or “ex quay” (duty on buyer’s account), or else there may be uncertainty as to who is to he responsible for the liability to clear the goods for import.
This mean that the seller shall make the goods available to the buyer on board the ship at the destination named in the sales contact. The seller has to bear the full cost and risk involved in bringing the goods there.
Amount of money the rate of which is agreed in advance, payable by the shipowner to the charterer, shipper or receiver, as the case may be, for loading and/or discharging in less than the time allowed; normally despatch money, if a provision for it has been made, is at the same rate as, or half the rate of the rate of demurrage agreed in the Charter-Party.
Charge payable by a shipper or receiver to a shipping line for detaining equipment or a vessel beyond the time allowed.
Clause in a Bill of Lading or Charter-Party allowing the shipping line or shipowner to deviate from the agreed route or normal trade route. This clause varies from contract to contract and may permit the ship to call at unscheduled ports for whatever reason, or to deviate to save life or property.
This term, often found in voyage charter negotiations, signifies that despatch money is to be paid at the daily rate of demurrage. The rate of demurrage precedes this term in the offer. For example, an offer by telex might read USD 5.000 dhd, which signifies that demurrage would be at the rate of U.S. Dollars 5,000 per day and despatch money at U.S. Dollars 2,500 per day.
Bill of Lading containing one, or more than one superimposed clause specifying a defect to the cargo or packing, noted at the time the goods are received by the ship. Such a Bill of Lading is also referred to as foul or unclean.
Sums paid out by a ship’s agent on behalf of a shipowner at a port and recovered from the shipowner by means of a disbursements account. Typical expenses include pod charges, pilotage, towage and the agent’s fee.
Person or company who controls the commercial operation of a ship, responsible for deciding the ports of call and the cargoes to be carried, very often, the disponent owner is a shipping line, which time charters a ship and issues its own liner bills of lading. In most cases, Industrial Maritime Carriers are acting as “disponent ownersâ€.
Charge levied against a shipowner or ship operator by a port authority for the use of a dock.
Said of a service or freight rate provided by a container shipping line whereby goods are loaded into a shipping container at the shipper’s premises and not unloaded until they arrive at the consignee’s premises.
Frequently used provision in a time charter to determine the time and place of redelivery of a ship to the owner by the charterer. The hire ceases at the moment the pilot disembarks.
Actual weight of a bulk cargo less an allowance for moisture content.
Weight of cargo, which a ship is able to carry when immersed to the appropriate load line, expressed in tons.
Deadweight or deadweight all told. Difference between a ship’s loaded and light displacement, consisting of the total weight of cargo, fuel, fresh water, stores and crew which a ship can carry when immersed to a particular load line, normally her summer load line. The deadweight is expressed in tons.